We use freeze replication for studying plasma membranes, cytoskeletons, organelles and macromolecular complexes.

Variant Instruments, JEOL JFD or Leica EM HPF100 (LEICA ACE900).


1) Freeze-fracture.

2) Deep-etch.

3) SDS-FRIL (SDS-digested freeze fracture replica immunogold labelling).

4) DRIL (Deep-etch replica immunogold labelling.




Under construction.



Deep-etch images of the plasma membrane in tumour urinary bladders.

Image shows caveolae, clathrin-coated pits and an actin-based membrane skeleton on the cytoplasmic surface.

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